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Hotels near Schiller International University. About Heidelberg. Home to the oldest university in Germany, Heidelberg was hit hard during 17th-century wars and rebuilt in the 18th century with baroque buildings.
For a pleasant walk, stroll through the historic city center's Gothic streets. Be sure to take in Heidelberg Castle, the symbolic heart of the city; Alte Brucke, a beautiful 18th-century bridge; and the Student Jail.
Built as long ago as the 16th century, it was used to keep mischievous students off the streets for three days to a month at a time.
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Create a Trip. Essential Heidelberg. Go play. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences. By the numbers The full Heidelberg experience can't be summed up in numbers alone, but they do tell part of our story.
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Heidelberg's library, founded in , is the oldest existing public library in Germany. In April , a few months after proclaiming his Ninety-five Theses , Martin Luther was received in Heidelberg, to defend them.
In , the castle located higher up the mountain was destroyed by a gunpowder explosion. The duke's palace was built at the site of the lower castle.
Elector Frederick III , sovereign of the Electoral Palatinate from to , commissioned the composition of a new Catechism for his territory.
While the catechism's introduction credits the "entire theological faculty here" at the University of Heidelberg and "all the superintendents and prominent servants of the church" for the composition of the catechism, Zacharius Ursinus is commonly regarded as the catechism's principal author.
Caspar Olevianus — was formerly asserted as a co-author of the document, though this theory has been largely discarded by modern scholarship.
Frederick himself wrote the preface to the Catechism and closely oversaw its composition and publication.
Frederick, who was officially Lutheran but had strong Reformed leanings, wanted to even out the religious situation of his highly Lutheran territory within the primarily Catholic Holy Roman Empire.
The Council of Trent had just concluded with its conclusions and decrees against the Protestant faiths, and the Peace of Augsburg had only granted toleration for Lutheranism within the empire where the ruler was Lutheran.
One of the aims of the catechism was to counteract the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as well as Anabaptists and "strict" Gnesio-Lutherans like Tilemann Heshusius and Matthias Flacius , who were resisting Frederick's Reformed influences, particularly on the matter of Eucharist the Lord's Supper.
The Catechism-based each of its statements on biblical proof-texts, and Frederick himself would defend it as biblical, not reformed, at the Diet of Augsburg when he was called to answer to charges of violating the Peace of Augsburg.
Frederick became known as the "Winter King", as he reigned for only one winter before the Imperial House of Habsburg regained the crown by force.
His overthrow in marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In , after a siege of two months , the armies of the Catholic League , commanded by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly , captured the town.
In late , after the Swedish army had conquered Heidelberg, imperialist forces attempted to take back the city. They quickly took the city, but were unable to take the castle.
They ended the siege and drove off the Catholic forces. The Germans rejected the claim, in part because of religious differences between local Protestants and the French Catholics, as the Protestant Reformation had divided the peoples of Europe.
The War of the Grand Alliance ensued. In , French troops took the town and castle, bringing nearly total destruction to the area in As a result of the destruction due to repeated French invasions related to the War of the Palatinate Succession coupled with severe winters, thousands of Protestant German Palatines emigrated from the lower Palatinate in the early 18th century.
They fled to other European cities and especially to London where the refugees were called "the poor Palatines". In sympathy for the Protestants, in —, Queen Anne's government arranged transport for nearly 6, Palatines to New York.
Others were transported to Pennsylvania , and to South Carolina. They worked their passage and later settled in the English colonies there.
In , after assigning a major church for exclusively Catholic use, religious conflicts with the mostly Protestant inhabitants of Heidelberg caused the Roman Catholic Prince-Elector Charles III Philip to transfer his residence to nearby Mannheim.
The court remained there until the Elector Charles Theodore became Elector of Bavaria in and established his court in Munich.
In Elector Charles Theodore began rebuilding the Palace. In , a lightning bolt destroyed other palace buildings during reconstruction, causing the work to be discontinued.
Heidelberg fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden in Notable scholars soon earned it a reputation as a "royal residence of the intellect".
In the 18th century, the town was rebuilt in the Baroque style on the old medieval layout. In the French revolution refugee Count Charles Graimberg began to preserve the palace ruins and establish a historical collection.
In , the German National Assembly was held there. In , during the Palatinate-Baden rebellion of the Revolutions , Heidelberg was the headquarters of a revolutionary army.
It was defeated by a Prussian army near Waghaeusel. The city was occupied by Prussian troops until By , one-third of the university's teaching staff had been forced out for racial and political reasons.
The non-Aryan professors were ejected in , within one month of Hitler's rise to power. The lists of those to be deported were prepared beforehand.
A few months later, the inauguration of the huge Ehrenfriedhof memorial cemetery completed the second and last NSDAP project in Heidelberg.
This cemetery is on the southern side of the old part of town, a little south of the Königstuhl hilltop, and faces west towards France.
During the Kristallnacht on November 9, , Nazis burned down synagogues at two locations in the city. The next day, they started the systematic deportation of Jews, sending to Dachau concentration camp.
Within a few months, as many as of them from Heidelberg died of hunger and disease. On March 29, , German troops left the city after destroying three arches of the old bridge, Heidelberg's treasured river crossing.
They also destroyed the more modern bridge downstream. The U. Army 63rd Infantry , 7th Army entered the town on March 30, The civilian population surrendered without resistance.
Heidelberg, unlike many other cities in Germany, was not targeted by Allied bombing raids during the war. Army wanted to use the city as a garrison after the war, but, as Heidelberg was neither an industrial center nor a transport hub, it did not present a tactical or strategic target.
Other notable university towns, such as Tübingen and Göttingen , were spared bombing as well. Allied air raids focused extensively on the nearby industrial cities of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen.
Army may have chosen Heidelberg as a garrison base because of its excellent infrastructure, including the Heidelberg-Mannheim Autobahn motorway , which connected to the Mannheim-Darmstadt-Frankfurt Autobahn, and the U.
Army installations in Mannheim and Frankfurt. The intact rail infrastructure was more important in the late s and early s when most heavy loads were still carried by train, not by truck.
Heidelberg had the untouched Wehrmacht barracks, the "Grossdeutschland Kaserne" which the US Army occupied soon after, renaming it the Campbell Barracks.
In the university was reopened relatively quickly on the initiative of a small group of professors, among whom were the anti-Nazi economist Alfred Weber and the philosopher Karl Jaspers.
Patton had a car accident in the adjacent city of Mannheim and died in the Heidelberg US Army hospital on December 21, The funeral ceremony was held at the Heidelberg-Weststadt Christuskirche Christ Church , and he was buried in the 3rd Army cemetery in Luxembourg.
During the post-war military occupation , the U. Army used the Thingstätte for cultural and religious events. Civilian use started in the early to mids for occasional concerts and other cultural events.
Today, the celebrations on Hexennacht "Witches' Night" , also called Walpurgis Night , the night of April 30, are a regular "underground" fixture at the Thingstätte.
Thousands of mostly young people congregate there to drum, to breathe fire, and to juggle. The event has gained fame throughout the region, as well as a certain notoriety due to the amount of litter left behind.
The population of the city of Heidelberg exceeded , for the first time in It is a city with an international population, including one of the largest American communities outside North America, but this is not analysed in the Heidelberg population statistics.
At the end of December , the city had , inhabitants with an official primary residence in Heidelberg not including the soldiers and employees of the U.
Army and their dependents, a total of about 20, people , a historic high. The following table shows the number of inhabitants within the boundaries of the city at the time.
To they are mostly estimates, then census results or official updates of the statistical offices of the time or the city administration.
The data refer from to the "local population", from to the resident population and since the "population at the site of their main dwelling. With a fertility rate of 1.
Since , the Oberbürgermeister lord mayor of Heidelberg has been the independent Eckart Würzner. The council consists of 48 volunteer members with the mayor as chairman.
The council is directly elected for a term of five years. The task of the council is to decide all the affairs of the city, with the mayor presiding.
The council controls the city administration and oversees the enforcement of its decisions. Heidelberg has always been a stronghold of the Greens.
Together they gained 10 seats to become the strongest force for the first time. HD, they formed the largest group in the council. Religion in Heidelberg  .
The "old town" German: Altstadt , on the south bank of the Neckar, is long and narrow.